Showing blog posts from October 2014


Full Disclosure of Havex Trojans

I did a talk on "SCADA Network Forensics" at the 4SICS conference last week, where I disclosed the results from my analysis of the Havex RAT/backdoor.

The Havex backdoor is developed and used by a hacker group called Dragonfly, who are also known as "Energetic Bear" and "Crouching Yeti". Dragonfly is an APT hacker group, who have been reported to specifically target organizations in the energy sector as well as companies in other ICS sectors such as industrial/machinery, manufacturing and pharmaceutical.

In my 4SICS talk I disclosed a previously unpublished comprehensive view of ICS software that has been trojanized with the Havex backdoor, complete with screenshots, version numbers and checksums.

Dale Petersen, founder of Digital Bond, expressed the following request regarding the lack of public information about the software trojanized with Havex:

If the names of the vendors that unwittingly spread Havex were made public, the wide coverage would likely reach most of the affected asset owners.

Following Dale's request we decided to publish the information presented at 4SICS also in this blog post, in order to reach as many affected asset owners as possible. The information published here is based on our own sandbox executions of Havex malware samples, which we have obtained via CodeAndSec and malwr.com. In addition to what I presented at 4SICS, this blog post also includes new findings published by Joel "scadahacker" Langill in version 2.0 of his Dragonfly white paper, which was released just a couple of hours after my talk.

In Symantec's blog post about Havex they write:

Three different ICS equipment providers were targeted and malware was inserted into the software bundles


Trojanized MESA Imaging driver

The first vendor known to have their software trojanized by the Dragonfly group was the Swiss company MESA Imaging, who manufacture industrial grade cameras for range measurements.


lib MESA SR Installer - SwissrangerSetup1.0.14.706.exe

Image: Screenshot of trojanized MESA Imaging driver installer from our sandbox execution

Company: MESA Imaging
Product: Swiss Ranger version 1.0.14.706 (libMesaSR)
Filename: SwissrangerSetup1.0.14.706.exe
Exposure: Six weeks in June and July 2013 (source: Symantec)
Backdoor: Sysmain RAT
MD5: e027d4395d9ac9cc980d6a91122d2d83
SHA256: 398a69b8be2ea2b4a6ed23a55459e0469f657e6c7703871f63da63fb04cefe90

eWON / Talk2M

The second vendor to have their software trojanized was the Belgian company eWON, who provide a remote maintenance service for industrial control systems called “Talk2M”.

eWon published an incident report in January 2014 and then a follow-up report in July 2014 saying:

Back in January 2014, the eWON commercial web site www.ewon.biz had been compromised. A corrupted eCatcherSetup.exe file had been uploaded into the CMS (Content Management System) of www.ewon.biz web site. eCatcher download hyperlinks were rerouted to this corrupted file. The corrupted eCatcherSetup.exe contained a malware which could, under restricted conditions, compromise the Talk2M login of the infected user.

eWON Talk2M eCatcher Installer - eCatcherSetup.exe

Image: Screenshot of trojanized Talk2M eCatcher installer from our sandbox execution

Company: eWON
Product: Talk2M eCatcher version 4.0.0.13073
Filename: eCatcherSetup.exe
Exposure: Ten days in January 2014, 250 copies downloaded (source: Symantec)
Backdoor: Havex 038
MD5: eb0dacdc8b346f44c8c370408bad4306
SHA256: 70103c1078d6eb28b665a89ad0b3d11c1cbca61a05a18f87f6a16c79b501dfa9

Prior to version 2.0 of Joel's Dragonfly report, eCatcher was the only product from eWON known to be infected with the Havex backdoor. However, Joel's report also listed a product called “eGrabit”, which we managed to obtain a malware sample for via malwr.com.


eWON eGrabIt Installer - egrabitsetup.exe

Image: Screenshot of trojanized eGrabIt installer from our sandbox execution

Company: eWON
Product: eGrabIt 3.0.0.82 (version 3.0 Build 82)
Filename: egrabitsetup.exe
Exposure: unknown
Backdoor: Havex RAT 038
MD5: 1080e27b83c37dfeaa0daaa619bdf478
SHA256: 0007ccdddb12491e14c64317f314c15e0628c666b619b10aed199eefcfe09705

MB Connect Line

The most recent company known to have their software infected with the Havex backdoor was the German company MB Connect Line GmbH, who are known for their industrial router mbNET and VPN service mbCONNECT24.

MB Connect Line published a report about the Dragonfly intrusion in September 2014, where they write:

On 16th of April 2014 our website www.mbconnectline.com has been attacked by hackers. The files mbCHECK (Europe), VCOM_LAN2 and mbCONFTOOL have been replaced with infected files. These files were available from 16th of April 2014 to 23th of April 2014 for download from our website. All of these files were infected with the known Trojan Virus Havex Rat.


MB Connect Line mbCONFTOOL setup - setup_1.0.1.exe

Image: Screenshot of trojanized mbCONFTOOL installer from our sandbox execution

Company: MB Connect Line GmbH
Product: mbCONFTOOL V 1.0.1
Filename: setup_1.0.1.exe
Exposure: April 16 to April 23, 2014 (source: MB Connect Line)
Backdoor: Havex RAT 043
MD5: 0a9ae7fdcd9a9fe0d8c5c106e8940701
SHA256: c32277fba70c82b237a86e9b542eb11b2b49e4995817b7c2da3ef67f6a971d4a

MB Connect Line mbCHECK - mbCHECK.exe

Image: Screenshot of trojanized mbCHECK application from our sandbox execution

Company: MB Connect Line GmbH
Product: mbCHECK (EUROPE) V 1.1.1
Filename: mbCHECK.exe
Exposure: April 16 to April 23, 2014 (source: MB Connect Line)
Backdoor: Havex RAT 043
MD5: 1d6b11f85debdda27e873662e721289e
SHA256: 0b74282d9c03affb25bbecf28d5155c582e246f0ce21be27b75504f1779707f5

Notice how only mbCHECK for users in Europe was trojanized, there has been no report of the USA/CAN version of mbCHECK being infected with Havex.

We have not been able to get hold of a malware sample for the trojanized version of VCOM_LAN2. The screenshot below is therefore from a clean version of this software.


MB Connect Line VCOM_LAN2 setup - setupvcom_lan2.exe

Image: Screenshot VCOM_LAN2 installer

Company: MB Connect Line GmbH
Product: VCOM_LAN2
Filename: setupvcom_lan2.exe
Exposure: April 16 to April 23, 2014 (source: MB Connect Line)
Backdoor: unknown
MD5: unknown
SHA256: unknown

Conclusions on Havex Trojans

The vendors who have gotten their software trojanized by Dragonfly are all European ICS companies (Switzerland, Belgium and Germany). Additionally, only the mbCHECK version for users in Europe was infected with Havex, but not the one for US / Canada. These facts indicate that the Dragonfly / Energetic Bear threat actor seems to primarily target ICS companies in Europe.


Next: Detecting Havex with NSM

Read our follow-up blog post Observing the Havex RAT, which shows how to detect and analyze network traffic from ICS networks infected with Havex.

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Posted by Erik Hjelmvik on Monday, 27 October 2014 11:11:00 (UTC/GMT)


Chinese MITM Attack on iCloud

Users in China are reporting a MITM attacks on SSL connections to iCloud.

GreatFire.org, who monitor the Great Firewall of China (GFW), also published a blog post on their website earlier today saying:

This is clearly a malicious attack on Apple in an effort to gain access to usernames and passwords and consequently all data stored on iCloud such as iMessages, photos, contacts, etc.


Fake SSL Certificate

In their blog post GreatFire also linked a packet capture file, which we have analyzed in order to verify the MITM attack. We loaded the PcapNG file into NetworkMiner Professional and extracted the X.509 SSL certificate.

NetworkMiner with fake iCloud certificate

The extracted certificate can be downloaded from here. Also, here are a few details from this X.509 certificate:

$ openssl x509 -inform DER -in www.icloud.com.cer -noout -issuer -subject -startdate -enddate -fingerprint
issuer= /C=cn/O=www.icloud.com/CN=www.icloud.com
subject= /C=cn/O=www.icloud.com/CN=www.icloud.com
notBefore=Oct 4 10:35:47 2014 GMT
notAfter=Oct 4 10:35:47 2015 GMT
SHA1 Fingerprint=F4:68:B5:F3:FE:D8:07:97:44:76:A2:2B:32:EA:31:37:D9:24:F7:BA

As reported elsewhere, the certificate was self signed, which means that browsers and most iPhone apps will either inform the user about the connection being unsafe or simply close the connection (see update at the bottom of this blog post regarding the missing certificate verification in Apple iOS). This use of self signed certificates is consistent with previous SSL MITM attacks performed in China against GitHub, Google, Yahoo and live.com.


Location of the MITM Attack

By looking at host the information provided by NetworkMiner for the fake iCloud SSL server we can see that it is just six router hops away from the client (having an IP TTL value of 58). This indicates that the MITM attack is being performed within China, since we'd expect to see at least three more router hops if the packets were coming from outside China.

NetworkMiner showing host details for MITM'ed iCloud server

The same PCAP file also contains packets from the same IP address on TCP port 80, which have traveled 11 hops (IP TTL 53). We therefore assume that only traffic to TCP port 443 is being MITM'ed.

This TTL analysis also matches various TCP traceroutes we've seen to the MITM'ed iCloud SSL service on 23.59.94.46:443.

                        My traceroute [v0.85]
siyanmao-k29 (0.0.0.0)                        Sat Oct 18 19:26:07 2014

Host                          Loss% Snt  Last   Avg  Best  Wrst StDev
1. 192.168.1.1                0.0%   17   0.6   0.7   0.6   0.8   0.0
2. -------------              0.0%   16   2.8   2.6   1.7   3.3   0.3
3. -------------              0.0%   16   2.0   2.2   1.4   4.0   0.4
4. ???
5. 119.145.47.78              0.0%   16   6.4   7.7   4.3  27.0   5.2
   183.56.65.54
   183.56.65.50
   119.145.47.74
   121.34.242.250
   121.34.242.138
6. 23.59.94.46               25.0%   16 168.5 171.4 166.8 201.3   9.4
mtr TCP 443 traceroute to 23.59.94.46 (source: http://pastebin.com/8Y6ZwfzG)

The mtr TCP traceroute above indicates that MITM attacks are performed in AS4134 (China Telecom).


bearice@Bearice-Mac-Air-Haswell ~
%tcptraceroute 23.59.94.46 443
Selected device en0, address 192.168.100.16, port 52406 for outgoing packets
Tracing the path to 23.59.94.46 on TCP port 443 (https), 30 hops max
1 192.168.100.254 1.737 ms 0.793 ms 0.798 ms
2 111.192.144.1 2.893 ms 2.967 ms 2.422 ms
3 61.51.246.25 2.913 ms 2.893 ms 3.968 ms
4 124.65.61.157 4.824 ms 2.658 ms 3.902 ms
5 202.96.12.9 3.626 ms 6.532 ms 3.794 ms
6 219.158.96.54 27.539 ms 26.821 ms 27.661 ms
7 a23-59-94-46.deploy.static.akamaitechnologies.com (23.59.94.46) [open] 30.064 ms 29.899 ms 30.126 ms
tcptraceroute to 23.59.94.46 443 (source: bearice on GitHub)

The tcptraceroute above indicates that MITM attacks are also performed in AS4837 (China Unicom).


Tcproute by @chenshaoju
Tcproute traceroute to 23.59.94.46 on TCP 443 (source: @chenshaoju)

The Tcproute screenshot above shows that also CHINANET backbone network (China Telecom) seems to be used to carry out the MITM attacks.

Judging from these TCP traceroutes the MITM attacks seem to be taking place at several different locations rather centrally in the Chinese Internet infrastructure. To be more specific, it appears as if the MITM attacks are being performed on backbone networks belonging to China Telecom (CHINANET) as well as China Unicom.


UPDATE (October 22)

A vulnerability notice (CVE-2014-4449) has now been published, where Apple confirm that fake SSL certificates (like the Chinese fake one) were not verified by Apple iOS before 8.1. Apple released the first details about this vulnerability just a few hours after this blog post was published. Here's the text from the CVE description:

iCloud Data Access in Apple iOS before 8.1 does not verify X.509 certificates from TLS servers, which allows man-in-the-middle attackers to spoof servers and obtain sensitive information via a crafted certificate.
This means that the Chinese MITM of iCloud could potentially have revealed a significant number of iCloud credentials as well as private data (images, videos, documents etc) to the attackers. Or, as @Exploit_This tweeted: "So china wants our nudes?"

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Posted by Erik Hjelmvik on Monday, 20 October 2014 13:35:00 (UTC/GMT)


Verifying Chinese MITM of Yahoo

Yahoo Umbrella GreatFire.org sent out a tweet yesterday saying that “Yahoo appears to under Man-in-the-middle attack in China. 3rd case of country-wide MITM, after Google, Github”.

Mashable later ran a story called “China Appears to Attack Yahoo in Latest Censorship of Hong Kong Protests”, where Lorenzo Franceschi-Bicchierai write:

In what's almost unprecedented, China appears to be targeting Yahoo with what's called a "man-in-the-middle attack." With such an attack, connections to Yahoo.com, which are normally encrypted, would be vulnerable to snooping, and Chinese censors could also block search terms or specific Yahoo links with the goal of preventing Chinese netizens from accessing information about the protests in Hong Kong.

In this blog post we verify that there is an ongoing Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack by analyzing two different packet capture files.

Capture LocationCapture DateFilenameMD5
Wuxi, China 2014-09-30
10:15 (UTC)
Yahoo.pcapng5633a0cce5955b44 18189fe3fd27847d
Zhengzhou, China2014-09-30
11:35 (UTC)
YahooMITM.pcapng722ca9b7837416ef 2391b48edd20d24e

Both PCAP files were created with Wireshark/dumpcap using a capture filter of “host 202.43.192.109”, which is the IP address that was reported to be MITM'ed by the Great Firewall of China (GFW). This IP address is located in Hong Kong and is used by Yahoo to host www.yahoo.com, hk.yahoo.com etc. for users in this part of Asia.


Time-To-Live (TTL) Analysis

We estimate the distance between the end users and the Yahoo server in Hong Kong to be at least 10 router hops. However, the IP packets coming back to the users have IP TTL values of 58 (Wuxi) and 57 (Zhengzhou). This implies that the MITM is performed somewhere in China, just 6 or 7 router hops away from the users. This is consistent with what we've observed in previous MITM attacks performed by China against GitHub and Google.

CapLoader 1.2 Hosts tab with hk.yahoo.com
IMAGE: Hosts tab in CapLoader showing TTL 57 for hk.yahoo.com:443


X.509 Certificate Analysis

We have extracted a X.509 certificate from one of the PcapNG files to a .cer file using NetworkMiner. This SSL certificate is available for download here.

$ openssl x509 -inform DER -in yahoo.com.cer -noout -issuer -subject -startdate -enddate -fingerprint
issuer= /C=cn/O=yahoo.com/CN=yahoo.com
subject= /C=cn/O=yahoo.com/CN=yahoo.com
notBefore=Sep 23 11:30:17 2014 GMT
notAfter=Sep 23 11:30:17 2015 GMT
SHA1 Fingerprint=22:90:C3:11:EA:0F:3F:57:E0:6D:F4:5B:69:8E:18:E8:28:E5:9B:C3

The certificate is a self signed certificate for “yahoo.com”. The fact that the MITM uses a self signed certificate makes the attack easily detectable even for the non-technical user, since the web browser will typically display a warning about the site not being trusted.

Some may think it's odd that China can't forge a properly signed certificate for their SSL MITM attack. However, they've used very similar self signed certificates also in their previous MITM attacks against GitHub and Google. The purpose of GFW (a.k.a. “Golden Shield”) is to censor the Internet, so the primary goal with this MITM attack isn't to covertly spy on Chinese Yahoo searches. Regardless if the end users notice the MITM or not, a self signed X.509 cert is enough in order to see what they are searching for and “kill” their connection to Yahoo when queries like “Umbrella Revolution” and “Tiananmen Square Protests” are observed.

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Posted by Erik Hjelmvik on Wednesday, 01 October 2014 21:55:00 (UTC/GMT)

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Recommended Books

» The Practice of Network Security Monitoring, Richard Bejtlich (2013)

» Applied Network Security Monitoring, Chris Sanders and Jason Smith (2013)

» Network Forensics, Sherri Davidoff and Jonathan Ham (2012)

» The Tao of Network Security Monitoring, Richard Bejtlich (2004)

» Practical Packet Analysis, Chris Sanders (2017)

» Windows Forensic Analysis, Harlan Carvey (2009)

» TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1, Kevin Fall and Richard Stevens (2011)

» Industrial Network Security, Eric D. Knapp and Joel Langill (2014)