NETRESEC Network Security Blog - Tag : DoH


Sharing a PCAP with Decrypted HTTPS

Modern malware and botnet C2 protocols use TLS encryption in order to blend in with "normal" web traffic, sometimes even using legitimate services like Twitter or Instagram.

I did a live demo at the CS3Sthlm conference last year, titled "TLS Interception and Decryption", where I showed how TLS interception can be used to decrypt and analyze malicious HTTPS network traffic. During the demo I used DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH) and posted messages to Pastebin and Twitter, pretending to be a malware or malicious actor. The HTTPS network traffic was decrypted and analyzed live as part of my demo. The CS3Sthlm organizers have posted a video recording of the live demo on YouTube.

Erik presenting PolarProxy at CS3Sthlm, photo credit: CS3Sthlm

Image: Erik demoing TLS Interception and Decryption at CS3Sthlm 2019

We are now releasing a PCAP file with the decrypted network traffic captured during this live demo here:

» https://www.netresec.com/files/proxy-191023-091924.pcap «

This blog post provides a step-by-step walk-through of the decrypted HTTPS traffic in the released capture file.

The TLS decryption was performed by connecting a laptop to a custom WiFi access point, which was a Raspberry Pi configured as in our "Raspberry Pi WiFi Access Point with TLS Inspection" blog post. I additionally enabled the PCAP-over-IP feature in PolarProxy by starting it with the "--pcapoverip 57012" option. This allowed me to connect with Wireshark and NetworkMiner to TCP port 57012 on the TLS proxy and stream the decrypted traffic in order to perform live network traffic analysis.

Laptop, Raspberry Pi, PolarProxy, Internet ASCII

Image: Live demo network with Laptop (Browser, NetworkMiner, Wireshark), Raspberry Pi (PolarProxy) and the Internet.

Below follows a breakdown of various significant events of my demo and where you can find these events in the released capture file.

DNS lookup of "www.google.com" using DoH

  • Frame: 833
  • Protocol: DoH using HTTP/2 POST
  • Five tuple: 192.168.4.20:52694 104.16.248.249:80 TCP
DoH lookup of www.google.com shown in NetworkMiner DoH lookup of www.google.com shown in Wireshark

Google search for "tibetan fox psbattle"

  • Frame: 2292
  • Protocol: HTTP/2
  • Five tuple: 192.168.4.20:52716 216.58.211.4:80 TCP
Google search for 'tibetan fox psbattle' in Wireshark Google search for 'tibetan fox psbattle' in NetworkMiner

Tibetan Fox image downloaded from reddit

  • Frame: 3457
  • Protocol: HTTP/2
  • Five tuple: 192.168.4.20:52728 151.101.85.140:80 TCP
Image download from reddit shown in NetworkMiner

Orginal "tibetan fox" image downloaded from this reddit thread.

Tibetan Fox Remix Image HTTP/2 Download

  • Frame: 5805
  • Protocol: HTTP/2
  • Five tuple: 192.168.4.20:52769 151.101.84.193:80 TCP
Images downloaded via HTTP/2

DNS Lookup of "cs3sthlm.se"

  • Frame: 13494
  • Protocol: DoH using HTTP/2 POST
  • Five tuple: 192.168.4.20:52699 104.16.249.249:80 TCP

Images downloaded from CS3Sthlm's website

  • Frame: 14134
  • Protocol: HTTP/1.1
  • Five tuple: 192.168.4.20:52896 192.195.142.160:80 TCP
Images downloaded from CS3Sthlm's website

Data sent in HTTP/2 POST to Pastebin

  • Frame: 18572
  • Protocol: HTTP/2 POST
  • Five tuple: 192.168.4.20:52904 104.22.2.84:80 TCP
Data sent to Pastebin in HTTP/2 POST

The file "post.php.form-data" contains the data sent to Pastebin in the HTTP/2 POST request. Here are the reassembled contents of that file, including the "hello cs3 I am a malware" message:

-----------------------------54168074520069581482009826076
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="csrf_token_post"

MTU3MTgyMjg5OTFwcjBzODJaQ0NuUk9PT1B3ZTl0b20zdFg3ZkhXQ1R4
-----------------------------54168074520069581482009826076
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="submit_hidden"

submit_hidden
-----------------------------54168074520069581482009826076
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="paste_code"

hello cs3 I am a malware
-----------------------------54168074520069581482009826076
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="paste_format"

1
-----------------------------54168074520069581482009826076
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="paste_expire_date"

1H
-----------------------------54168074520069581482009826076
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="paste_private"

0
-----------------------------54168074520069581482009826076
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="paste_name"

malware traffic
-----------------------------54168074520069581482009826076--

Mallory80756920 logs in to Twitter

  • Frame: 24881
  • Protocol: HTTP/2 POST
  • Five tuple: 192.168.4.20:53210 104.244.42.65:80 TCP
Twitter credentials for Mallory80756920

Mallory80756920 posts a Tweet

  • Frame: 26993
  • Protocol: HTTP/2 POST
  • Five tuple: 192.168.4.20:53251 104.244.42.66:80 TCP

Mallory80756920 tweeted "Hello CS3! I'm in you!". The data was sent to twitter using an HTTP/2 POST request.

Twitter post in Wireshark Twitter post in NetworkMiner

Conclusions

A great deal of the interesting TLS traffic in the analyzed capture file is using the HTTP/2 protocol. This doesn't come as a surprise since more than half of all HTTPS traffic is using HTTP/2 nowadays (sources: server protocol statistics, client protocol statistics). It is therefore essential to be able to analyze HTTP/2 traffic if you have a TLS inspection (TLSI) solution in place. Unfortunately many TLSI products don't yet support the HTTP/2 protocol.

Wireshark was one of the first network traffic analysis tools to implement HTTP/2 support, much thanks to Alexis La Goutte. However, Wireshark's excellent "File > Export Objects" doesn't yet support extraction of files from HTTP/2 traffic. There are other ways to extract HTTP/2 file transfers with Wireshark, but they require a few additional steps in order to carve out the file to disk.

Luckily NetworkMiner extracts files from HTTP/2 as of version 2.5. In fact, we believe NetworkMiner is the first open source tool to support automatic HTTP/2 file extraction from PCAP.

Finally, I'd like to stress the point that modern malware use HTTPS, so you need to have a TLSI solution in place to analyze the malicious traffic. As the majority of all HTTPS traffic is using HTTP/2 you also need to ensure that you're able to analyze HTTP/2 traffic passing through your TLSI solution.

Posted by Erik Hjelmvik on Monday, 13 January 2020 12:45:00 (UTC/GMT)

Tags: #HTTP/2 #http2 #DoH #TLS #Google #HTTPS #TLSI #TLS Inspection #TLS Interception #PolarProxy #NetworkMiner #Wireshark #Forensics #PCAP #Video

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NetworkMiner 2.5 Released

NetworkMiner 2.5

I am happy to announce the release of NetworkMiner 2.5 today! This new version includes new features like JA3 and parsers for the HTTP/2 and DoH protocols. We have also added support for a few older protocols that are still widely used, such as Kerberos and the CIFS browser protocol. Additionally, NetworkMiner can now parse PCAP files up to twice as fast as before!

Improving Passive TLS Analysis with JA3

Almost all web traffic is TLS encrypted nowadays, which prevents incident responders, analysts and investigators from inspecting otherwise unencrypted HTTP traffic for clues about malicious behavior or criminal intent. This requires analysts to use alternative approaches, such as looking at hostnames and X.509 certificates. This type of analysis is supported by NetworkMiner, since it parses Server Name Indication fields in client TLS handshakes and extracts X.509 certificates automatically when PCAP files are loaded.

In this release we’ve also added support for another passive TLS analysis technique called JA3, which is a method for fingerprinting TLS client implementations.

NetworkMiner leverages the JA3 fingerprint database from Trisul Network Analytics in order to match observed JA3 hashes to hashes of known malware and “normal” applications. This is what it looks like when the capture file “snort.log.1428364808”, from the FIRST 2015 “Hands-on Network Forensics” training (available here), has been loaded into NetworkMiner 2.5:

JA3 fingerprint of a Skype client

Image: JA3 fingerprint of a Skype client in NetworkMiner 2.5

The JA3 hash is also available in the “Parameters” tab, which is useful in order to find out what hosts that particular TLS implementation was reaching out to.

Filtering on JA3 hash 06207a1730b5deeb207b0556e102ded2 in NetworkMiner 2.5

Image: Filtering on JA3 hash 06207a1730b5deeb207b0556e102ded2

HTTP/2 and DoH Support

Passive analysis of TLS traffic, such as HTTPS, often doesn’t give sufficient visibility. Many organizations therefore use TLS proxies in order to decrypt the traffic going in and out from their networks. However, more than half of all HTTPS traffic is actually http2 (RFC 7540) nowadays. This has previously been an issue for users who wanted to analyze decrypted http2 traffic from their TLS intercepting proxies with NetworkMiner. We’re happy to announce that NetworkMiner now can parse http2 traffic, that has been decrypted by a TLS proxy, and extract files from the http2 transfers.

NetworkMiner 2.5 also supports the DNS over HTTPS (DoH) protocol (RFC 8484), which is a technique for sending DNS queries as http2 POST requests and parsing the returned data as DNS responses. We’ve incorporated the DoH data into NetworkMiner’s DNS tab, so that you can analyze it just like normal DNS traffic.

DoH traffic to mozilla.cloudflare-dns.com in NetworkMiner’s DNS tab

Image: DoH traffic to mozilla.cloudflare-dns.com in NetworkMiner’s DNS tab

Please note that NetworkMiner 2.5 does not perform TLS decryption. This means that NetworkMiner can only parse the contents of a TLS stream if it has been decrypted by a TLS proxy, such as PolarProxy.

Extracting Kerberos Hashes from PCAP

NetworkMiner’s support for the Kerberos protocol allows you to passively track which user accounts that are authenticating to what services, simply by monitoring network traffic. This is a feature is essential in order to track credential theft and lateral movement by adversaries inside your networks. After implementing kerberos username and hash extraction we realized that this feature could also be valuable for penetration testers. We therefore decided to present extracted Kerberos credentials in a format that is compatible with tools like hashcat and John the Ripper.

Kerberos krb5pa, krb5asrep and krb5tgs credentials extracted from the Wireshark sample capture file

Image: Kerberos krb5pa, krb5asrep and krb5tgs credentials extracted from the Wireshark sample capture file Krb-contrained-delegation.cap

For more information about Kerberos hashes, please see our Extracting Kerberos Credentials from PCAP blog post.

Even more NetBIOS and CIFS Artifacts!

NetworkMiner is a popular tool for extracting files transferred over SMB and SMB2 from capture files. It can also extract a great deal of information about the communicating hosts from protocols like NetBIOS and SMB/CIFS, but earlier this year Chris Raiter notified us about an important piece of information that was missing in NetworkMiner: NetBIOS Name Service (NBNS) lookups and responses!

Detection and export of NBNS packets request on twitter

A couple of months later Dan Gunter sent us another great feature request for another protocol that runs on top of NetBIOS: the CIFS Browser Protocol (aka MS-BRWS).

We’re happy to announce that NBNS queries and responses are now shown in NetworkMiner’s Parameters tab, and details like hostnames, domain names, Windows versions and uptime us extracted from the MS-BRWS protocol. See the screenshots below, which were created by loading the capture file “case09.pcap” from Richard Bejtlich’s TCP/IP Weapons School 2.0 Sample Lab into NetworkMiner 2.5. Thanks for sharing Richard!

Hostname, domain and Windows version extracted from MS-BRWS traffic

Image: Hostname, domain and Windows version extracted from MS-BRWS traffic

NBNS queries and responses in NetworkMiner’s Parameters tab

Image: NBNS queries and responses in NetworkMiner’s Parameters tab

Mono 5 Required for Linux and MacOS

Linux and MacOS users, who run NetworkMiner with help of Mono, will need to ensure they have Mono 5 (or later) installed in order to run NetworkMiner 2.5. We recommend using at least Mono 5.18.

Instructions for installing NetworkMiner on Linux can be found in our blog post ”HowTo install NetworkMiner in Ubuntu Fedora and Arch Linux”.

MacOS users can refer to our “Running NetworkMiner on Mac OS X” blog post.

Users who are unable to install Mono 5 are recommended to use the old NetworkMiner 2.4 release, which can be downloaded here: https://www.netresec.com/?download=NetworkMiner_2-4

NetworkMiner Professional

Apart from the features mentioned so far, our commercial tool NetworkMiner Professional now comes with a few additional new features. One of these features is port independent identification of RDP traffic, so that mstshash credentials can be extracted from RDP sessions even if the service doesn’t run on port 3389. The OSINT lookup context menus in NetworkMiner Professional have also been enriched with the following online services:

Several new features have also been included in the command line tool NetworkMinerCLI, including:

  • Recursive loading of PCAP files with the "-R” switch.
  • Configurable export types (hosts, files, DNS etc) with the “-x” switch.
  • Relative paths in CSV, XML and JSON/CASE exports unless the “-- absolutePaths” switch is used.

Credits

I’d like to thank Dan Gunter, Chris Raiter, Chris Sistrunk and a few more (who I cannot mention here) for contributing with feature requests and bug reports that have helped improve NetworkMiner.

Upgrading to Version 2.5

Users who have purchased a license for NetworkMiner Professional 2.x can download a free update to version 2.5 from our customer portal, or use the “Help > Check for Updates” feature. Those who instead prefer to use the free and open source version can grab the latest version of NetworkMiner from the official NetworkMiner page.

Posted by Erik Hjelmvik on Thursday, 07 November 2019 11:45:00 (UTC/GMT)

Tags: #NetworkMiner #HTTP/2 #http2 #DoH #Kerberos #NetBIOS #PCAP #hashcat #John #NetworkMinerCLI #OSINT

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PolarProxy Released

I’m very proud to announce the release of PolarProxy today! PolarProxy is a transparent TLS proxy that decrypts and re-encrypts TLS traffic while also generating a PCAP file containing the decrypted traffic.

PolarProxy flow chart

PolarProxy enables you to do lots of things that have previously been impossible, or at least very complex, such as:

  • Analyzing HTTP/2 traffic without an SSLKEYLOGFILE
  • Viewing decrypted HTTPS traffic in real-time using Wireshark
    PolarProxy -p 10443,80,443 -w - | wireshark -i - -k
  • Replaying decrypted traffic to an internal or external interface using tcpreplay
    PolarProxy -p 10443,80,443 -w - | tcpreplay -i eth1 -
  • Forwarding of decrypted traffic to a NIDS (see tcpreplay command above)
  • Extracting DNS queries and replies from DNS-over-TLS (DoT) or DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH) traffic
    PolarProxy -p 853,53 -p 443,80
  • Extracting email traffic from SMTPS, POP3S or IMAPS
    PolarProxy -p 465,25 -p 995,110 -p 993,143

Here is an example PCAP file generated by PolarProxy:
https://www.netresec.com/files/polarproxy-demo.pcap

This capture files contains HTTP, WebSocket and HTTP/2 packets to Mozilla, Google and Twitter that would otherwise have been encrypted with TLS.

 HTTP/2 traffic from PolarProxy opened in Wireshark
Image: HTTP/2 traffic from PolarProxy opened in Wireshark

Now, head over to our PolarProxy page and try it for yourself (it’s free)!

Posted by Erik Hjelmvik on Friday, 21 June 2019 06:00:00 (UTC/GMT)

Tags: #PolarProxy #PCAP #NIDS #IDS #http2 #HTTP/2 #Wireshark #tcpreplay #DoH #SMTPS #IMAPS #TLS #SSL

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book

Recommended Books

» The Practice of Network Security Monitoring, Richard Bejtlich (2013)

» Applied Network Security Monitoring, Chris Sanders and Jason Smith (2013)

» Network Forensics, Sherri Davidoff and Jonathan Ham (2012)

» The Tao of Network Security Monitoring, Richard Bejtlich (2004)

» Practical Packet Analysis, Chris Sanders (2017)

» Windows Forensic Analysis, Harlan Carvey (2009)

» TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1, Kevin Fall and Richard Stevens (2011)

» Industrial Network Security, Eric D. Knapp and Joel Langill (2014)